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Studies done on the European continent soon demonstrated the universal validity of index fossils.
That is, an index fossil corresponded to a very specific point in the geologic column.
The depth at which either is found can vary dramatically.
Radiometric dating would later confirm the relative ages of the strata and tie them to absolute dates.
The depth of burial, itself, has little to do with our mystery.
In some parts of the world the Cretaceous is found deeper than is the Cambrian in other parts of the world.
What does the Jurassic strata have that the Tertiary strata do not? Neutrinos penetrate the earth so easily that they would affect all strata more or less equally, to the extent that they affect anything at all.
If rock type mattered then we would expect a zircon crystal's lead content to vary dramatically within the Cambrian or Cretaceous strata according to their local rock types. Cosmic rays, on the other hand, don't penetrate that far into the earth to begin with, so we can rule them out.
One can hardly accuse these pioneers of evolutionary prejudice.