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The Red Sea located in the desert region but almost completely closed, shows the highest salinity of all (40ppt) but the Mediterranean Sea follows as a close second (38ppt).
Lowest salinity is found in the upper reaches of the Baltic Sea (0.5%).
So, saltwater fish drink water copiously while excreting excess salts through their gills.
Freshwater fish do the opposite by not drinking but excreting copious amounts of urine while losing little of their body salts.
Chemical elements in sea water do not exist on their own but are attracted to preferential ions of opposite charge: sulphur will occur mainly as sulphate, sodium as sodium chloride, and so on.
Salinity and the main salt ions The salinity of sea water (usually 3.5%) is made up by all the dissolved salts shown in the above table.
Sea salt is made by evaporating sea water, but this is not straight-forward.
Between 100% and 50% first the calcium carbonate (Ca CO3= limestone) precipitates out, which is chalk and not desirable.
This makes iron an essential nutrient for plankton growth.Marine plants (seaweeds) and many lower organisms have no mechanism to control osmosis, which makes them very sensitive to the salinity of the water in which they live.The main nutrients for plant growth are nitrogen (N as in nitrate NO3) and potassium (K) followed by Sulfur (S), Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca).This world map shows how the salinity of the oceans changes slightly from around 32ppt (3.2%) to 40ppt (4.0%).Low salinity is found in cold seas, particularly during the summer season when ice melts.
In commercial salt production, the water is led through various evaporation ponds, to achieve the desired result.