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Many methods for measuring temperature both now and in the distant past, are available and these are discussed in this chapter. The summer-winter temperature signal is very large compared to its average trend, while also minima and maxima show different trends.
The southern hemisphere has even been cooling in the past 40 years while the northern hemisphere warmed.
But its capillary must be wide enough to place the metal floating pins, which means that it cannot be read very accurately (0.5ºC is difficult).
Please note that bulb thermometers are sensitive to outside pressure and are thus less suitable for deep sea temperature measurements, unless they are encased inside a rugged mantle.
But the Urban Heat Island effect still has its warming influence.
The Six's thermometer has the advantages and disadvantages of both mercury and alcohol thermometers.
The industrial bulb thermometer consists of a relatively large copper bulb with long capillary tube that can be bent and guided through the innards of an appliance.
At its end it has a tiny pressure sensor (manometer) which operates an electrical switch. These thermo-controllers are extensively used in air conditioners, washing machines and other appliances.
Today there are still two temperature scales in use: Fahrenheit (UK previously and USA still today) and Celsius (the rest of the world).
The Fahrenheit scale has been replaced scientifically by the Celsius scale (called Centigrade in the UK and USA), and later by the Kelvin scale, which has identical one degree steps.